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<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> This paper reviews our understanding of the interception of moving objects. Interception is a demanding task that requires both spatial and temporal precision. The required precision must be achieved on the basis of imprecise and sometimes biased sensory information. We argue that people make precise interceptive movements by continuously adjusting their movements. Initial estimates of how the movement should progress can be quite inaccurate. As the movement evolves, the estimate of how the rest of the movement should progress gradually becomes more reliable as …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Oceanic emissions of iodine destroy ozone, modify oxidative capacity, and can form new particles in the troposphere. However, the impact of iodine in the stratosphere is highly uncertain due to the lack of previous quantitative measurements. Here, we report quantitative measurements of iodine monoxide radicals and particulate iodine (I <sub> y,part </sub> ) from aircraft in the stratosphere. These measurements support that 0.77 ± 0.10 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) total inorganic iodine (I <sub> y </sub> ) is injec…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> The Earth's atmosphere is an extremely large and sparse environment which is quite challenging for the survival of microorganisms. We have long wondered about the limits to life in the atmosphere, starting with Leeuwenhoek's observation of "animalcules" collected from the air. In the past century, significant progress has been made to capture and identify biological material from varying elevations, from a few meters above ground level, to the clouds near mountaintops, and the jet streams, the ozone layer, and even higher up in the stratosphe…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Stratosphere-reaching moist convection can significantly alter the dynamics, chemistry, and climate of the Earth system. This study seeks to add to the emerging understanding of the frequency, depth, and stratospheric impact of such events using 22 years (1996-2017) of ground-based radar observations in the contiguous United States. While most prior studies identify such storms using the temperature lapse-rate tropopause (LRT) as a troposphere-stratosphere boundary, this study is the first to identify convection that reaches into stratospheric air below the LRT …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> In a series of 10-day campaigns in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, between 2005 and 2007, ozonesondes were launched twice daily in conjunction with continuous high-resolution wind-profiling radar measurements. Windprofilers can measure rapid changes in the height of the tropopause, and in some cases follow stratospheric intrusions. Observed stratospheric intrusions were studied with the aid of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and the Canadian operational weather forecast system. Definite stratosphere-troposphere transport (STT) events occurred approximately ev…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Whether terrestrial life can withstand the martian environment is of paramount interest for planetary protection measures and space exploration. To understand microbial survival potential in Mars-like conditions, several fungal and bacterial samples were launched in September 2019 on a large NASA scientific balloon flight to the middle stratosphere (∼38 km altitude) where radiation levels resembled values at the equatorial Mars surface. Fungal spores of <i> Aspergillus niger </i> and bacterial cells of <i> Salinisphaera shabanensi…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> The early months of 2020 showed record-breaking levels of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Apart from the tropics, monthly AOD values over most of the SH exceeded the average by more than three standard deviations. This anomalous AOD is attributed to a combination of the intensity and location of the Australian bushfires. The fires took place south enough, where the tropopause altitude is relatively low, within the mid-latitude cyclone belt. This location allowed for deep convection over and downwind of the fires, which transported …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> The predictability of the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere and its underlying dynamics are investigated in five state-of-the-art seasonal prediction systems from the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) multi-model database. Special attention is devoted to the connection between the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) and lower-stratosphere wave activity (LSWA). We find that in winter (December to February) dynamical forecasts initialised on the first of November are considerably more skilful than empirical forecasts based on October anomalies. Moreover, the cou…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:19 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Purpose/Aim: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not require specific testing to demonstrate the safety of personal care and cosmetic products or their ingredients. Recently, there have been reports of skin irritation associated with the use of commercially available cleansing conditioners. The goal of this study was to implement a tier-based safety assessment to evaluate the skin irritation potential of six commercially available cleansing conditioners and their ingredients. </p> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Mat…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Diverse plant communities are often more productive than mono-specific ones. Several possible mechanisms underlie this phenomenon but their relative importance remains unknown. Here we investigated whether light interception alone or in combination with light use efficiency (LUE) of dominant and subordinate species explained greater productivity of mixtures relative to monocultures (i.e. overyielding) in 108 young experimental tree communities. We found mixed-species communities that intercepted more light than their corresponding monocultures had 84% probabilit…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <b> <i> Background: </i> </b> Two primary care clinics implemented an opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment program that integrates behavioral health counseling with buprenorphine treatment and uses tiers. This project aimed to understand how patients moved through tiers in this program. <b> <i> Method: </i> </b> We purposively sampled 20 patients with at least 10 OUD-related treatment visits; we documented tier changes at all visits between September 1, 2016 and December 31, 2018 using …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> In the first step of earthworm risk assessment for plant protection products (PPPs), the risk is assessed by comparing the no-observed effect levels (NOELs) from laboratory reproduction tests with the predicted exposure of the PPP in soil, while applying a trigger value (assessment factor [AF]) to cover uncertainties. If this step indicates a potential risk, field studies are conducted. However, the predicted environmental concentration in soil, which can be calculated, for example, for different soil layers (ranging from 0-1 cm to 0-20 cm), and the AF determine…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Objectives: </strong> To investigate the status of nursing interruption events during medicine administration and to analyze the factors influencing interruptions. </p> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Study design: </strong> The nursing drug delivery process was divided into 3 segments: the processing of doctors' orders, drug allocation, and bedside drug administration. The frequency, source, type, and outcome of interruption events during these 3 segments we…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:21 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Aim The use of tier 2 practitioners has been suggested as an intermediate tier in the NHS workforce completing cases of moderate difficulty previously referred to secondary care. Provision of such services varies depending on speciality and local commissioning priorities. This service evaluation investigated reasons for and outcomes of endodontic referrals to an NHS tier 2 service in Powys, Wales.Methods A sample of endodontic referrals was analysed with reasons for referral, referral outcome, requests for consultant support and patient demographic data recorded…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Concerns regarding the use of potential skin sensitisers in personal care and cosmetic products continue to grow. The goal of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept tier-based screening strategy for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential by using non-animal methodologies. As a case example, this screening framework was applied to three WEN® by Chaz Dean cleansing conditioners. The first tier of testing utilised the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Toolbox profiler to evaluate…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Pompe disease (PD) is screened by a two tier newborn screening (NBS) algorithm, the first tier of which is an enzymatic assay performed on newborn dried blood spots (DBS). As first tier enzymatic screening tests have false positive results, an immediate second tier test on the same sample is critical in resolving newborn health status. Two methodologies have been proposed for second tier testing: (a) measurement of enzymatic activities such as of Creatine/Creatinine over alpha-glucosidase ratio, and (b) DNA sequencing (a molecular genetics approach), such as tar…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Background and aims: </strong> Light interception is closely related to canopy architecture. Few studies based on multi-view photography have been conducted in a field environment, particularly studies that link 3-D plant architecture with a radiation model to quantify the dynamic canopy light interception. In this study, we combined realistic 3-D plant architecture with a radiation model to quantify and evaluate the effect of differences in planting patterns and row orientations on canopy light interceptio…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> Various research activities require the programming of a large numbers of devices. This programming can be difficult to co-ordinate and organise, and requires considerable labour time. These issues often mean that testing on real hardware is abandoned or taken only to small scale implementation thus limiting the real-world findings. The method described in this paper adopts a three-tiered approach to programming large numbers of devices. Tier 1 is comprised of a single Master Controller which is networked to individual tower modules, these towers form the final …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> A common perception is that cancer risk reduction is passive, such as not smoking. However, advances in the understanding of cancer biology and in cancer treatment modalities suggest that it is now timely to consider anew cancer risk reduction by active, including pharmacologic, approaches. Risk avoidance approaches are certainly important, but other approaches are important as well, as exemplified by the irony that most new lung cancers occur in former smokers, or current avoiders. Cancer interception is the active way of combating cancer and carcinogenesis at …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> This chapter focuses on the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of manual interception. We review the most important elements of an interceptive action from the sensory and cognitive stage to the motor side of this behavior. We describe different spatial and temporal target parameters that can be used to control the interception movement, as well as the different strategies used by the subject to intercept a moving target. We review the neurophysiological properties of the parietofrontal system during target motion processing and during a particular experi…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> We investigate, by means of pore-scale lattice Boltzmann simulations, the mechanisms of interception of respiratory droplets within fibrous porous media composing face masks. We simulate the dynamics, coalescence, and collection of droplets of the size comparable with the fiber and pore size in typical fluid-dynamic conditions that represent common expiratory events. We discern the fibrous microstructure into three categories of pores: small, large, and medium-sized pores, where we find that within the latter, the incoming droplets tend to be more likely interce…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Background and objectives: </strong> To examine the utility of a 3-tier schema (≤5 cm, 5.1-10 cm, and &gt; 10 cm) in determining characteristics and survival in Stage I uterine leiomyosarcoma. </p> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Methods: </strong> This retrospective observational study queried the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program from 1988 to 2016. Surgically treated stage I uterine leiomyosarcomas with known…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Background: </strong> Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy. </p> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Objectives: </strong> The validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, and the use of new or repurposed agents, alone or i…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Background: </strong> The authors conducted a literature review regarding the clinical and radiographic diagnoses of impacted maxillary canines, as well as the interceptive treatment (including surgical and orthodontic management) used to prevent or properly treat impacted canines. </p> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Types of studies reviewed: </strong> The authors reviewed clinical and radiographic studies, literature reviews and case reports. They selected only…
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
<div class="abstract-content selected" id="enc-abstract"> <p> <strong class="sub-title"> Background: </strong> Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor is a small-molecule cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator regimen shown to be efficacious in patients with at least one <i> Phe508del </i> allele, which indicates that this combination can modulate a single <i> Phe508del </i> allele. In patients whose other <i> CFTR </i> allele contains a gating or residual function mutation that is already effectively treated …
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Latest: July 28, 2022, 1:20 p.m.
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